A new species of Madagascan cichlid has just been described in the journal Zootaxa, however, it is already believed to have gone extinct.
The fish, Ptychochromoides itasy, was described by John Sparks, an icthyological systematist from the Department of Ichthyology at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, and was originally collected from Lake Itasy in the central highlands of Madagascar. The fish was described from specimens that have been lodged in museum collections for several decades.
The new ptychochromine differs from its relatives in having a pronounced occipital hump, even in small fishes that aren't yet sexually mature, and in females. It's also got a more elongate terminal dorsal spine, shorter snout and a shorter predorsal length than other members of the genus.
Unfortunately, although P. itasy was once common in the area, no specimens have been caught for several decades and the fish is believed to have become extinct.
For more information read the paper: Sparks, J. (2004) - A new and presumably extinct species of Ptychochromoides (Teleostei: Perciformes: Cichlidae) from central Madagascar. Zootaxta 524: 1-15.