New cichlid genera have been erected for both the Convict cichlid and the Jack Dempsey.
This was done as part of a recent revision of the central American cichlid genus Archocentrus, with two new, closely-related genera (Amatitlania and Rocio) and six new species (three of Amatitlania, two of Rocio and one of Cryptoheros) described as a result.
The study by Juan Schmitter-Soto is published in a recent issue of the journal Zootaxa, and examines all the nominal species ever assigned to Archocentrus, and species considered closely related to the type species, Archocentrus centrarchus, in phylogenetic analyses.
The following species of Archocentrus (with Heterotilapia considered its junior synonym) are recognized as valid:
Archocentrus centrarchus from the Pacific Central America from Honduras to Nicaragua and the Atlantic slope from Costa Rica to Nicaragua.
Archocentrus multispinosus from the Pacific Central America from Costa Rica to Nicaragua and the Atlantic slope from Costa Rica to Honduras.
Archocentrus spinosissimus from Guatemala.
Nine species of Cryptoheros are recognized as valid:
Cryptoheros panamensis from the Atlantic drainages of Panama. This species is the sole member of the subgenus Panamius (described in this study as new).
Cryptoheros spilurus from the Lake Izabal drainage in Guatemala. This species is a member of the subgenus Cryptoheros.
Cryptoheros chetumalensis, new species, from Belize north to the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico.
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This species is a member of the subgenus Cryptoheros, and can be distinguished from other members of the subgenus in having the secondary pored scales of the caudal fin not arranged in rows, a convex rostral end of the maxilla, the first neural spine slanting rostrard, three dorsal elements between the first two epineural spines, and the presence of a spinous anterodorsal process on the first dorsal-fin pterygiophore.
The species is named after the city of Chetumal, which is near its type locality.
Cryptoheros cutteri from Atlantic Honduras north to Guatemala. This species is a member of the subgenus Cryptoheros.
Cryptoheros septemfasciatus from Costa Rica. This species is a member of the subgenus Bussingius (described in this study as new).
Cryptoheros altoflavus from Panama. This species is a member of the subgenus Bussingius.
Cryptoheros myrnae from Atlantic Central America from Panama to Costa Rica. This species is a member of the subgenus Bussingius.
Cryptoheros nanoluteus from Panama. This species is a member of the subgenus Bussingius.
Cryptoheros sajica from Atlantic Costa Rica. This species is a member of the subgenus Bussingius.
AmatitlaniaThe genus Amatitlania is named after the type locality of the type species (Amatitln), and differs from other heroine genera in having the first bar on the side of the body Y-shaped, well-marked and with the caudal arm discontinuous; the bars from the sides of the body extending fully to the edge of the dorsal and anal fins; and medial intensifications on the second and third (sometimes first) bars.
It consists of the following species:
Amatitlania nigrofasciata from the Pacific central America from El Salvador to Guatemala and the Atlantic central America, from Honduras to Guatemala.
The southern populations previously considered A. nigrofasciata (Convict cichlids) are described as three new species below.
Amatitlania coatepeque, new species, from Lake Coatepeque in El Salvador (after which the species is named).
Is the Honduran Red Point now called Amatitlania siquia? More
This species is distinguished from other members of the genus in having a Y-shaped fourth bar on the side of the body; triple-spined posterior end of the dentigerous arm of the dentary, and a characteristic double medial loop in the gut.
Amatitlania kanna, new species, from Atlantic Panama.
This species differs from other members of the genus in lacking secondary caudal pores, a dorsally pigmented peritoneum, and a quadrate bone that is wider than long.
The species is named after the greek word meaning a reed, as the Ro Caaveral (=reedbed) was the first locality where it was found.
Amatitlania siquia, new species, from Costa Rica north to Atlantic Honduras.
This species is distinguished from other members of the genus in having a simple gut that is folded ventrororstrally with the anal and medial loops not touching and a rostrally-pigmented peritoneum.
It is named after the type locality (Ro Siquia).
The genus Rocio is named after the author's wife and the spots on the cheek and the sides of some species, an allusion from the Spanish word for morning dew.
Rocio is distinguished from other heroine genera in having the main gill rakers on the first gill arch with a mediad projection at the base, an indentation and posteriad spine on the posterior edge of the mesethmoid, and posterior edge of the supraoccipital undulating and with a deep concavity.
The Jack Dempsey is now called Rocio octofasciata. Picture by Zhyla, Creative Commons.
It consists of the following species:
Rocio octofasciata (the Jack Dempsey) from Honduras and southern Mexico.
Rocio ocotal, new species, from the Laguna Ocotal in Mexico. Rocio ocotal differs from other members of the genus in having a reddish abdomen in life, pelvic fins not reaching the anal-fin origin, lower symphyseal teeth without a lingual cusp, isoalted secondary pores on the caudal-fin scales, the absence of spots on scales on the sides of the body, and 4 or 5 dentary pores. The species is named after the type locality.
Rocio gemmata, new species, from the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico.
This species is named after the bright green and blue cheek and opercle spots (from the latin gemmata, meaning bejeweled), and can be distinguished from other members of the genus in having spots on the sides larger than scales and not clearly aligned, an interrupted stripe from the eye to the snout, and a spine on the quadrate bone.
Two species of Hypsophrys are recognized as valid:
Hypsophrys nicaraguensis from Costa Rica and Nicaragua.
Hypsophrys nematopus from Costa Rica and Nicaragua.
The revised taxonomy of Hypsophrys matches that of an earlier study by Chakrabarty and Sparks. (See Central American cichlids renamed).
For more information, see the paper: Schmitter-Soto, JJ (2007) A systematic revision of the genus Archocentrus (Perciformes: Cichlidae), with the description of two new genera and six new species. Zootaxa 1603, pp. 1"78.
See also: Chakrabarty, P and JS Sparks (2007) Relationships of the New World cichlid genus Hypsophrys Agassiz, 1859 (Teleostei: Cichlidae), with diagnoses for the genus and its species. Zootaxa 1523, pp. 59"64.